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544 Darrell Huff: How to Lie with Statistics

“How to Lie with Statistics” exposes the various ways in which statistical data can be manipulated or misinterpreted to deceive and mislead.



"How to Lie with Statistics" by Darrell Huff is a classic book that shines a light on the art of distorting and misrepresenting statistical information. It reveals the tactics used by marketers, politicians, advertisers, and others to manipulate data for their own purposes. Huff provides readers with insights into common statistical fallacies, including misleading graphs, biased sampling, cherry-picking data, and correlation versus causation. Through engaging examples and clear explanations, he equips readers with the tools to critically evaluate statistical claims and identify when they are being deceived. The book serves as a powerful reminder to approach statistics with a skeptical eye and to ask critical questions about the integrity and interpretation of data.


  1. Title: How to Lie with Statistics 
  2. Author: Darrell Huff 
  3. Publishing Year: 1954 
  4. Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company 
  5. Length in Hours: 3 hrs


5 main ideas

  1. The Power of Visual Representation: Huff explores how visual representations, such as graphs and charts, can be manipulated to distort the perception of data and influence opinions.
  2. Sampling Techniques: The book highlights the importance of proper sampling methods and exposes the pitfalls of biased or selective sampling that can lead to misleading conclusions.
  3. Misleading Averages: Huff explains how the choice of averages, such as mean, median, or mode, can significantly impact the interpretation of data and misrepresent the true picture.
  4. Causation vs. Correlation: The book emphasizes the critical distinction between correlation and causation, cautioning against jumping to causal conclusions based solely on statistical associations.
  5. Statistical Jargon and Deception: Huff delves into the deceptive use of statistical jargon and terminology, revealing how language can be manipulated to mislead and confuse readers.

5 funny quotes

  1. "Statistics, like the bikini, often reveal more than they hide."
  2. "The 'averages' are the dachshunds of statistics; they can be stretched to fit any purpose."
  3. "There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics - and you can prove this yourself by analysis."
  4. "A man with a watch knows what time it is. A man with two watches is never sure."
  5. "Statistics: The only science that enables different experts using the same figures to draw different conclusions."

5 thought-provoking quotes​

  1. "Figures don't lie, but liars figure."
  2. "If you can't prove what you want to prove, demonstrate something else and pretend that they are the same thing."
  3. "The secret language of statistics, so appealing in a fact-minded culture, is employed to sensationalize, inflate, confuse, and oversimplify."
  4. "The greatest value of a picture is when it forces us to notice what we never expected to see."
  5. "Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write."

5 dilemmas

  1. Balancing the need for accurate and unbiased statistical reporting with the pressures of marketing and persuasion.
  2. Addressing the ethical implications of intentionally misleading or misrepresenting statistical data.
  3. Navigating the challenges of interpreting statistical claims in a society bombarded with data and information.
  4. Identifying and challenging misleading statistics in political discourse and media reporting.
  5. Recognizing the responsibility of individuals to critically evaluate statistical claims and not be easily swayed by misleading information.

5 examples

  1. "Brand X toothpaste is preferred by 4 out of 5 dentists" - an example of selective sampling to promote a particular product.
  2. "Famous celebrity endorsing a weight-loss product claims to have lost 20 pounds in just 2 weeks" - an example of an exaggerated and potentially misleading claim.
  3. "The XYZ car boasts 50% more fuel efficiency" - an example of a vague and unsupported statistic used for marketing purposes.
  4. "A political candidate claims a 100% increase in job creation during their tenure" - an example of using misleading statistics to enhance political achievements.
  5. "A study shows that people who eat chocolate live longer" - an example of a correlation presented as causation without considering other factors.

Referenced books

  1. "The Visual Display of Quantitative Information" by Edward R. Tufte
  2. "Naked Statistics" by Charles Wheelan
  3. "Thinking, Fast and Slow" by Daniel Kahneman
  4. "The Black Swan" by Nassim Nicholas Taleb
  5. "The Signal and the Noise" by Nate Silver

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"Statistics, like the bikini, often reveal more than they hide."

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